RADIOLARIANS

Radiolarians show very impressive skeletons, especially when inspected with the SEM, as shown in the attached photo galery.

         
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2 3 4 5 6
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Thyrsocyrtis
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Thyrsocyrtis
10 11 12
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Calocyclas
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Calocyclas
15 16
Dictyoprora
17 18
Lychnacomana
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20 21 22 23 24
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26 27 28
Xiphoshaera ?
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32 33 34 35 36
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38 39 40 41 42
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44 45 46 47 48
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50 51 52 53 54
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Hexalonche
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Hexalonche
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62 63 64 65 66
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68 69 70 71 72
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75 76 77 78
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80 81 82 Amphisphaera 83 84
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86 87 88 89 90
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92 93 94 95 96
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98 99 100 101 102
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104 105 106 107 108
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110 111 112 113 114
         
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116 117 118 119 120 - ?? -
         
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122 123 124 125 126
               
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128 129 130 131 132

01 - 32: Eozän, Barbados

33 - 74 :Recent, Agulhas Basin, 4732 m

75 - 90 : Recent, Mingulay Reef 186m, Scotland

91 - 92 : Burdigalium, Ortenburg

93 - 112 : Recent, South China Sea, 3465 m

113 - 126 : Recent, west of Virgin Islands, 1815 m

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Because of the large depth of field of a SEM is not difficult to produce stereo image pairs . First you adjust the image electronically using the feature "scan rotation", so that a mechanical displacement of the object table from left to right results in a horizontal displacement on the monitor. The object table must be level. Now the object is tilted by 5 degrees to the left and the first image is taken (left stereo image), then the object is tilted to the right by the same degree and is centered again (right stereo image). The results are amazing!

Click on the images and then print the enlarged pictures, the stereo image pairs should be 16 cm wide in total (corresponding with an eye-distance of 8 cm). Look at these images with a stereoscope (3D-viewer). There is, however, an easier way:

Look at the stereo pair from a reading distance and then try to look "dreamingly" through the prints. This way the visual axes of the eyes are parallel and between the images appears a third image, usually first as a double image. After some time both these images merge and you will see a three-dimensional structure popping out of the prints. Experience shows that this approach will first require some practicing, but if done successfully, the next time it will work much faster. It is helpful to "try to see" a spatial entity - our brain will do the rest then. This particular method of image viewing can be done directly on the monitor (click on the images!)!

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3D-anaglyphs for red-green glasses, left eye "red"

       
       
       
       

First both stereo images (black-and-white) are processed separately and saved (preferably on a black background). Then the "right image" is loaded and turned to "red" using the function <Monochrome>, after that the "left picture" is superposed and turned to intense green in the same way. After that <Transparency> is to be set to 50%. Now the red picture can be seen through the transparent green picture and so it is possible to position the (upper) green picture in such a way that the middle parts of the images are at exactly at same level. Now take the anaglyph glasses (left eye "red") and move the green image horizontally until an optimum stereo effect is achieved. Finally the images are merged (mode <Normal> ), then contrast is enhanced and the merged image is saved. Anaglyphs can be used even in large format, but the picture quality is worse than in stereo images viewed with a 3D-viewer. In case of colored or very finely structured objects this representation is not suitable as anaglyph .

ItIt is noteworthy that the 3D-effect is based merely on the object: but is independent of the displacement of the images, if the displacement is limited. When moving the green image further to the left, the shape of the object does not change, but the object appears more and more in front of the screen.

SEM images are very suitable for stereo photography because of their depth of field, but even amateurs can produce very nice stereo images by using a stereo microscope or a common microscope. If a stereo microscope is used you have to work at low magnification and with a tilting object holder (+ - 5 degrees) you must make yourself. In case of a common microscope you get stereo pairs by lateral displacement of the aperture diaphragm. If no corresponding "Abbe illuminating apparatus" is available, a perforated cardboard strip is used fixed in an appropriate manner under the condenser. A clean hole can be made with a core drill.

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