FORAMINIFERS

Foraminifers are marine protists (albeit usually with many nuclei). The vast majority of them are benthic organisms, but is it not necessary to collect samples by dredging. The tests can be found at beaches at the high water mark and can easily be collected. Fossil species can be found in sediments of the tertiary era and in abundance in cretaceous rocks. In both cases the isolation of the tests is easy. Usually foraminifers are investigated with a stereo microscope (first series of images). The SEM-pictures given here are much more impressive, but to identify species the use of the microscope is far more preferable. Generally speaking, foraminifers are particularly recommended to be investigated by amateurs!

For instructions how to collect, isolate and examine foraminifers see <tips sfor beginners and advanced>.

The first series of images presented here may demonstrate the abundance of different forms. The fotos have been taken by Michael Hesemann, Dieter Ketelsen and Joachim Voß.

 
  Uvigerina u. Nodosaria Amphistegina Achaias Nodosaria
 
  Nodosaria Coscinospira Elphidiella Elphidium

 

Even stones contain
foraminifers!

         
 

Neoschwagerina sp.

Carbon

Mino, Japan


  This well preserved foraminifer was found in the Carbon formation of Indiana (USA). It lived about 360 million years ago!
 
Endothyra
 

More microfossils are presented on the pages sorted genera   , microfossils, diatoms and radiolarians.


The amazing beauty of foraminifers can be seen only when using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), which enhances their contrast of the low-contrast porcelain-like surfaces

 

 
^^ Abditodentrix
.
Adelosina
.
Alveolinella Ammonia Amphicoryna Archaeo-
globigerina
 
^^ Archaias
.
Articulina Asterigeri-
nata
Astacolus Asterorotalia Angulogerina
 
^^ Ammodiscus
.
Assilina Ammobacu-
lites
Asterigerina Anomalina Alabamina
 
^^ Acervulina
.
Apterinella Arenoturrispirillina
 
^^ Baculogyp-
sina
Bolivina Bolivinella
.
Buccella Bulimina Bolivinoides
       
^^ Brizalina
.
Borelis Beella
 
^^ Calcarina
.
Cancris Cassidulina Ceratobuli-
mina
Cibicidella
.
Cibicides
 
^^ Clavulina Cornuspira Coscinospira
.
Chrysalidina Cycloforina Cymbalo-porella
 
^^ Cibicidoides
.
Cymbalo-poretta Cassidelina Chilostomella Candeina Cymbalopora
 
^^ Calcitornella
.
         
 
^^ Dentalina
.
Discorbia Discorbinoides Dorothia Discorbis Duque-
psammina
 
^^ Elphidium Epistomato-
ides
Eponides Euthymona-
chia
Eouvigerina Ellipspso-
domorphina
       
  Elphidiella
.
Ellipso-
nodosaria
Earlandia
 
^^ Favulina Fissurina
.
Floresina Flosculinella Frondicularia Fursenkoina
 
^^ Gavelinella Glandulina Globigerina Globigerino-
ides
Globobulimina Globorotalia
 
^^ Glomospira
,
Guttulina Gyroidina Geinitzina Globotruncana Globocassi-
dulina
 
^^ Globigerinella
,
Globogerinita Globotrunca-
nella
Gyrodinoides Globulina Glyphostomella
           
^^ Gavelinopsis
.
         
 
^^ Hauerina Haynesina Heterohelix Hoeglundina Homalohedra Hormosinella
 
^^ Hedbergella Hanzawaia
,
Haplophrag-
moides
Hormosinello-
ides
Hantkenina Hastigerina
 
^^ Heterolepa Hyalinonetrion
 
^^ Inaequalina        
 
^^ Karreriella        
 

^^ Lachlanella
,
Lagena Lenticulina Lobatula Loxostomum Leptohalysis
 
^^ Lagenammina
,
Laevidentalina Lenticula
 
^^ Marginulina
.
Martinotiella Massilina Melonis
.
Miliolinella Miliammina
 
^^ Miliona
.
Manzawaia Marginulopsis Marssonella Miogypsina Marginotruncana
 
^^ Neoeponides
.

Neoquadrina
.
Neorotalia Nodophthal-
mid.
Nodosaria Nonion
 
^^ Nonionella
.
Nonionellina Nodogene-
rina
Neoflabellina Nummolocul. Nonionoides
     
^^ Notorotalia
.
Neoconorbina
     
^^ Oolina
.
Orbulina Osangularia
 
^^ Pararotalia
.
Pavonina
.
Peneroplis Pileolina Planorbulina
Placentammina
 
^^ Psammo-
shaera

Pseudomas-
silina
Pseudotrilocu-
lina
Pseudotroch-
ammina ?
Pullenia Pyrgo
 
^^ Patellinella
.
Paratroch-
ammina
Palliolatella Polymorphina Pulleniatina Parasorites
 
^^ Plectofrondi-
cularia
Pleurostomella Planostegina Pseudouvi-
gerina
Parrellina
 
^^ Quinquelocu-
lina
 
^^ Reusella
.
Rosalina Reophax Rhabdammina Ramulina Rugoglobig.
           
^^ Recto-
glandulina
 
^^ Sagrinella
.
Sigmavirgu-
lina
Sigmoihaue-
rina
Sigmoilopsis Siphoninoi-
des
Sorites
 
^^ Sphaeroidina
Spirillina Spiroloculina Stainforthia Stomator-
bina
Spiroplectinella
 
^^ Siphonina
.
Siphono-
nodosaria
Stilostomella Sigmoilinita Sphaeroidinella Siphogenerina
 
^^ Svratkina Schlumberge-
rella
Stensioeina Siphonia Saracenaria Spiroplect-
ammina
 
^^ Spirosigmoilina          
 
^^ Textularia
.
Triloculina Trochulina Trifarina Trochammina Tenuitella
           
^^ Tolypammina          
 
^^ Uvigerina
 
^^ Vertebralina Voorthoy-
seni.
Vaginulinop-
sis
Vaginulina Virgulopsis Valvulina
 
^^ Vulvulina
.
         

 

Stereo images


Click on a stereo image and then attempt to "see through it dreamingly". The visual axes of the eyes are parallel this way and between the images appears a third image, usually first as a double image. After some time these images merge and you see the object hovering in front of the screen as a three-dimensional structure. Experience shows that this approach first requires some practice, but if successfully done the next time the method will work much faster. It is helpful to "try to see a three dimensional entity"- our brain will then do the rest of the work.

All the foraminifers on display are part of the collections of M. HESEMANN and K.-O. BOCK, who made the preparations necessary to obtain the SEM-images.

Genus determination: M. HESEMANN, D. KETELSEN, K.-O. BOCK.

A science-oriented database, created by M. HESEMANN, see www.foraminifera.eu . Here the corresponding Newsletter 2014 .

About foraminifers of the so-called "Sternberg-Stones" see www.foraminifera.eu/sternberg/index.html

A very informative publication concerning forams is available at the followong website:

http://paleopolis.rediris.es/cg/CG2010_BOOK_02/index.html

More microfossils on pages sorted genera   , microfossils, diatoms and radiolarians.

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